Eugenics is an interesting concept and theory which dates back to the 19th century even before the world wars began. The theory has a basic theme of improving genetic stock in a population. The idea behind eugenics is that genetic stock and pool can be improved and enhanced by making sure that traits and genes which are desirable are promoted while traits which are undesirable are put down and done away with. Eugenics as a theory encourages a situation where during breeding, species with desirable traits are brought together for breeding while species with undesirable elements are slowly weeded out of the system to ensure that only the best of traits are propagated for moving forward.
Eugenics come along with many problems which include questions on which traits are to be termed desirable and which are not. Questions also arise on the mode and means of selection of traits to be propagated as well as traits which are to be done away with. The theories of eugenics also came under serious threats in the Nazi Germany policies which were mainly racist. Eugenics was used as an excuse to wipe away more than 3 million Jews during the holocaust.
Transhumanism as a theory believes in the enhancement of human capabilities through the use of robotics, cloning, mind development, mind uploading and many different concepts which are used to make a better man out of the current human species.
The two theories are somewhat connected owing to the fact that they have similar underlying themes. The themes in both theories are trying to enhance human traits and capabilities so as to have “super humans.” The major difference between the two theories is that while transhumanism tends to make use of science and technology, eugenics works mainly with genetic modification.